The history of India is called one of the great chapters of the world history. Our history is divided into four parts.The history of this amazing subcontinent is about 75,000 years old. Evidence of this history found in the human activity of Homo sapiens.
According to the ages, the history of India is as follows
Pre Historic Period
STONE AGE:-The Stone Age began 500,000 to 200,000 years ago. After human came into existence,he used to use stone to fulfill most of his needs. man made weapons dating back 200,000 years have also been discovered from the northwestern part of the country.
The Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent began with the Indus Valley Civilization around 3,300 BC. Apart from being a historical part of ancient India, it is one of the earliest civilizations of the world along with Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt. People of this era developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicrafts and produced copper, brass, lead and tin
First Urbanization (3300 BC – 1500 BC):-
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION (2500-1500BC):-most special thing about this civilization was the developed city building scheme here. Both the cities of Harappa and Mohan Joddo had their fortifications where the family of the ruling class lived. Each town had a lower level city outside the fort where ordinary people lived in brick houses. Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, trade was the part of their business.
Its name came from the Indus River and it grew through agriculture .Sewerage was arranged under the ground. The houses were made on the form of a map. People here also worshiped natural resources.It is surprising that 5,000 years ago the people of the Indus Valley Civilization developed an urban culture based on agriculture and trade.It was developed on the banks of the Indus and Ghaghghar (ancient Saraswati). Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Kalibanga, Lothal, Dholavira and Rakhigarhi which are found in Haryana were its major centers. In December 2014, Bhirdana is considered the oldest discovered city of the Indus Valley Civilization so far.
According to research, this civilization is at least 8000 years old, it is also known as Harappa civilization and ‘Indus-Saraswati civilization’.The detailed information about this age will be given in a separate topic.
The history of ancient India derives from the script of the Indus Valley, the inscriptions of Ashoka, Herodotus, Xuan Song, Sangam literature, Markopolo, Sanskrit writers etc.
VEDIC AGE (1500-600BC):-Developed in the coastal region of the Saraswati River, which consists of the modern Indian states of Punjab (India) and Haryana.The special thing of this period was that our Vedas were written in this period. Rural civilization, caste, class, Pandits etc. also came into existence in this period.
Mahajanpad(600-300BC):- States or administrative units in ancient India are called Mahajanapadas. By studying these we remember the Mahabharata. The special thing of this period was that it was the first religious movement in India. It included Buddhism, Jainism and other religions. After this, Alexander attacked India in 326 (BC).
Mauryan:-Maurya dynasty in the north, which included Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka. In this Science, art, literature, mathematics, astronomy, ancient technology, religion, and philosophy came into existence. Socrates, Chanakya and Chandragupta etc. were the rulers of this period.
Ashoka period (269 -232 BC): – Ashoka was the third ruler of the emperor Maurya society. He was called the great ruler. Chanakya had a great hand in making him great.
Gupta dynasty :-The Gupta dynasty or Gupta dynasty was one of the major dynasties of ancient India.After the decline of the Maurya dynasty, political unity was not established in India for long. The Kushans and the Satavahanas tried to bring about political unity. The post-Mauryan period saw the rise of three dynasties in the third century AD, in which the Naga Shakti in central India, Bakatak in the south and the Gupta dynasty in the east are prominent. The credit for restoring the political unity that was destroyed after the decline of the Maurya dynasty is to the Gupta dynasty.
The foundation of the Gupta Empire dates back to the fourth decade of the third century and the rise of the early fourth century. The early kingdom of the Gupta dynasty was in modern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. This dynesty also called the Savarnim era of India.
This dynesty gave us the great scholar Aryabhata, Kalidasa,Dhan Mantri who was also called God of Medicine and Samudragupta who was called Napoleon of India.